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Kremers Froon Wiki: Clarification of the facts

Page history last edited by KFWiki 4 months ago

Clarification of the facts from the evidence in the Kremers-Froon disappearance

Welcome to the Kremers-Froon Wiki. This is a space dedicated to distinguishing fact from fiction in relation to this topic. Since 2014, there has been much speculation and (at times) inaccurate information which has been published. Further evidence has come to light since 2014. Please see below outline of things we can now clarify further. If you would like to help maintain this site and keep it up to date with accurate and factual information, please comment here.


Please note, this page only outlines the tangible evidence we have and any possible conclusions that can be made from this evidence, not any theories as to what may have happened.






Kris Kremers, 21, and Lisanne Froon, 22, were two Dutch students who disappeared on April 1, 2014, while hiking in Panama. After an extensive search, portions of their bodies were found a few months later. Their cause of death could not be determined definitively. Even though a 'lost' scenario was ruled by authorities, foul play could not be entirely ruled out and the circumstances/aftermath of their disappearance has resulted in much speculation. (Source)



Before arriving in Boquete

The girls were friends who had both grown up in Amersfoort, Netherlands. Both had recently completed their studies - Lisanne had just graduated with a degree in Applied Sciences the previous September, and Kris had just completed her studies in cultural social education, specializing in art education. They had both saved up money for six months and planned to go to Panama together on a special trip to learn Spanish, as well as to do something of significance for the locals, particularly volunteering with children. The girls arrived in Panama for a six-week vacation on 15 March 2014. They spent two weeks in the Bocas del Toro region of Panama before arriving in Boquete on 29 March to live with a local family for a month and start their volunteer work. From photos retrieved on Froon's camera, and as evidenced in both their diaries, the girls had enjoyed a relaxed beach vacation whilst in Bocas del Toro, which consisted of cooking classes, language school and general socializing with people their own age, before arriving in Boquete. (Source1; Source2)



After Arriving in Boquete and the Pianista Trail

After arriving in the area, the girls were supposed to start volunteering at a local children's day-care on Monday, 31 March. However, on arrival, they were quickly informed they could not start work that week as planned. The head of the day-care centre had an unforeseen emergency that needed attending to in the nearby city of David. As a result, she was unable to properly guide and train the girls for their volunteer work that week. Kris and Lisanne were eventually informed of this change of plan at around 7pm on 31 March. (Loc3946@Source)


This was of great disappointment and as a result, they set out to plan other activities to fill their time and new-found freedom. One of these plans included a hike to the nearby Pianista trail, amongst others. The girls had researched the trail and decided to undertake the hike on 1 April. According to Dutch masseuse Sigrid, whom the girls visited the day before the hike, they chatted enthusiastically to her about undertaking the trail the next day. (Source) According to testimony of local guide Feliciano González, the girls also had a guided tour planned with him on 2 April. (Source)


From the material the girls browsed and used in their decision making, the Pianista trail itself is described as a pleasant day hike which winds deep into the forest, but as it's only really one path, the hiker can "turn back at any time."


According to testimony by Marjolein, the location manager of the language school the girls were attending in Boquete, she informed them in her welcome talk: 


"About El Pianista, I said that it is the most beautiful short hike in the area, that the walk takes bout five hours [....] and that you walk to a viewpoint where, if the weather is clear, you can see both oceans and then you walk the same path back down again." (Loc3900@Source)



The Path after the Divide

We know the girls undertook the path up to summit, and arrived at the top at approximately 1pm from the time stamps on Lisanne's recovered camera. We know they then headed down the other side of the summit, leaving the Pianista trail behind, and headed down the local/native path on the other side of the Continental Divide. The path after the divide is still one path, much like the Pianista itself. In fact, some hikers have reported the the local trail is actually easier to traverse than the Pianista (less incline). But later on down the track, it can get more confusing to navigate.


Easier to traverse

Here are two quotes from a young french hiker who recreated the path in 2019:


"The path [after the summit] is very narrow and offers no alternative, that is, there is only one possible path. I even find this path much easier than the one on the Boquete side. This leaves no doubt as to the direction one must take to return. This advantage is, however, a weakness if one suffers an assault. The path is so narrow that the only options available are either flight in the opposite direction or combat but that would surely be facing someone who is armed with a machete. This tool equips most, if not all, of the locals who live near these trails." (Source)


"The path continuing beyond the Mirador takes the form of a single and narrow path. There, it is impossible to get lost by continuing in the same direction for at least an hour and a half. In this setup, it is also very difficult to escape someone and be able to flee in the direction of Boquete if someone is coming from there." (Source)


Then becomes harder

However, it seems if you continue further past the initial cow fields, the path then becomes harder to follow. This post by a westerner who lives in the Boquete area and documents his exploration of the region, outlines the confusion he experienced whilst trying to navigate further cow fields down the line, after the initial few fields. The terrain changes from jungle to cow fields to jungle again, making it hard to discern the path's outline at times. He explains it as follows - "every time it passed from the jungle and crossed a cattle pasture it became really difficult to follow, as the grass tended not to show the line to follow and of course the cattle had made tracks in all directions."


See relevant section of the description of this area in more detail below:


Wilpxlor: Exert from post: On the Atlantic Slope of Bocas De Toro, 10 April 2018

The path continued on mostly NNW, every time it passed from the jungle and crossed a cattle pasture it became really difficult to follow, as the grass tended not to show the line to follow and of course the cattle had made tracks in all directions. Things went well for about three more pastures but then I lost it completely. Tracing the boundary of the jungle did not show up anything. Finally slogging upward to around 800 meters I ran into a small group of indigenous houses surrounded by gardens of bannana, papaya, yuca and other vegetables. I was able to talk to a really surprised young bloke whom was completely nonplussed at giving directions, the gist of it was “it is too difficult to explain, you just go down and in two minutes you will find the path, its easy.”


Ok I went down and it was not easy, I kept going down from 800 meters all the way to the edge of the jungle, then cut down through the very steep forest, after having slashed through a couple of Quebrada's, down again through the bush until I came out at the River Culebra, without intersecting the path and I now found myself at some 600 meters or so. Ok I was not happy about the outcome and felt maybe I had been led astray, but wisely decided to have lunch, this made me feel much better about it all. So after a while It was slogging back up to the overgrown cleared zone above, through the very inclined  jungle, I kept slogging back until almost the small community again, where, and I am proud of this, I resisted the temptation to ask for the directions again. I am sure this reduced the perception that gringos are a little soft in the head amongst the local population. To be honest the only reason I finally found the bloody path again is because I had noticed that a local and his dog had been following the trail earlier on, these were the only legible tracks apart from some really nice big cat footprints which were evident in the mud whilst in the jungle (cow hooves apart). So tracking back to the last place I knew I was not lost, (a golden rule) and picking up his tracks again which were followed religiously right back and across the huge clearing, then downward to 715 meters where it left the cow pasture and plunged again into the forest.



After the first paddock (and approx. 60-120mins from their last known location of #508)

According to this source, after the the first paddock, the area becomes a series of open patches and vast fields, with abandoned fincas scattered throughout. The terrain is mountainous and the path regularly disappears. Once you enter this meadow area, surrounded by hills, the path disappears. Unless you are familiar with the area, it is easy to become lost, according to local guides. It is hard to get bearings at this point, because the path gently curves towards the river crossing. (Loc4743@Source)


Photo Analysis of the path after the divide:


Photo Number

Time Taken (on 1Apr)

505 1.20pm
This location is 20 mins after the summit, down the other side. There is still phone reception in this area. Debris as seen in the photo, indicates this a well worn track.
iPhone 1.39pm iPhone connection to network lost at 1.39pm. The girls would be half-way between photo 505 and 507/8, on the path. iPhone never connects again to a phone network, after this time.
507 1.54pm This location is almost 1 hour down the other side from the summit, heading away from Boquete.
508 1.54pm This location is almost 1 hour down the other side from the summit, heading away from Boquete. Last 'normal' / day photo taken.
If you were to continue on the path from the location of #508, in a forward direction heading away from Boquete, you would find: 
{2ndStream}* (2.15pm)*

This second stream is 20 mins from the location of the last 'normal' photo (#508).





15 mins from the second stream is this cow paddock area (35 mins away from location of #508).

No image avail (3.30pm-4pm)* Vast open patches/fields, mountainous terrain, path not easily visible in this area (60-120mins away from location of #508).

*() = predicted arrival time

*{} = predicted photo

 ^ The girls did not record any further locations after #508


Possible scenarios that occurred after #508:

1. Came off the path just after photo 508 was taken and walked voluntarily into the jungle surrounding the path. Note, this would be quite hard to traverse without any equipment. The locals guides use machetes to clear the way in these types of areas. The girls did not have any such items with them.

2. Arrived at the cow paddock/field and walked into the paddock itself and got lost down the cow tracks that lead to the field.

3. Continued further down the main path, past the first cow paddock, then and came off the path and into the surrounding jungle further down the line. The path is not as visible when it runs through the subsequent second/third paddocks and vast open fields just beyond the first paddock.

4. Third party involvement.




Phone Usage and Timeline of Events

Outline of the phone usage and timeline of other events occurring during the first week/s of the disappearance. None of the phones had network coverage when attempted emergency calls or signal checks were undertaken. Also outlined are the corresponding events which were occurring on or near the search area.



Date - 2014 iPhone (Kris) Samsung (Lisanne) Other Events
1 Apr
  • 11.05am - The phone has 50.91% battery capacity. The device connects to a cell tower which places it in the vicinity at the start of the Pianista trail (near the Il Pianista restaurant at the base of the trail)


  • 1.14pm - 3 photos are taken on the device. The girls are at the top of the Mirador at this point


  • 1.39pm - iPhone connection to GSM cell network lost. The device never connects back to a network again


  • 4.39pm - Call to 112


  • 4.39pm - The phone has 42.18% battery capacity


  •  5.58pm - Phone switched off (both phones switched off at the same time)
  • 10.40am - The phone has 49% battery capacity


  • 1.14pm - 4 photos are taken on the device. The girls are at the top of the Mirador at this point. The Google Maps app is closed down (it has been open since 10.16am)


  • 4.51pm - Call to 112


  • 5.40pm - The phone has 19% battery capacity


  •  5.58pm - Phone switched off (both phones switched off at the same time) 
  • 1.54pm - Last known location of the girls is indicated in photo #508, which places them approx. 1 hour down the other side of the summit heading away from Boquete.

2 Apr



  • 8.13am - The iPhone is manually switched from 2G to 3G (perhaps in an attempt to boost network connection)


  • 8.14am - Call to 112 and a screenshot was taken


  • 8.14am - Settings on the iPhone are changed so that the control panel can be used without a PIN
  • 6.58am - Call to 112 


  • 10.53am - Call to 112. Call to 911


  • 4.19pm - The phone is powered on and left on until 7.36am the next day
  • 8am - Girls miss appointment with guide Feliciano.


  • 9am - Feliciano obtains the key to the girl's room to find they hadn't spent the night there.


  • 4.13pm - Earthquake (6M) occurs in the region.


  • 7.30pm - Eileen (staff member of the language school the girls attended) and Feliciano visit police station to inform police of the escalating situation.


  • 9.30pm - Eileen and Feliciano visit police station again and officially declare K&L missing persons.
3 Apr 
  • 9.33am - 2 attempts to call 911


  • 4.02pm - The contact "Myriam" [Note - This is Myriam G, from the host family] is searched in the phone's address book
  • 2.22am - AccuWeather app opened. Battery capacity is at 6% 


  • 7.36am - Phone is manually switched off
  • Day - Sinaproc search area by air - helicopters sent out to scour the area.


  • Day - Feliciano starts searching on the trail and the path after the summit himself. Finds no trace of the girls. Not even footprints on the ground.
4 Apr 
  • 10.17am - iPhone turned on and off again


  • 1.42pm - iPhone turned on and off again
  • 4.50am - The phone is started up then switched off


  • 5.00am - Phone switched on, immediate shutdown follows. Battery exhausted, phone doesn't turn on again
  • Day - Lisanne's brother, uncle and a friend arrive in Boquete to help with the search. A helicopter flies over the jungle north of Boquete. Volunteers search on the ground in the area of the Pipeline, Lost Waterfalls and Quetzal Trail. 
5 Apr 
  • 10.50am - iPhone turned on, no emergency call attempt


* AFTER THIS TIME - No PIN entered into iPhone:


  • 1.37pm - iPhone turned on, no emergency call attempt (NO PIN)


  • 1.38pm - Phone is switched off
  • No usage
  • Day - Other local guides start searching in the area around Boquete. Volunteer teams continue searching throughout the weekend. 


  • Day - Two helicopters fly over the area again. Forty volunteers also help search on the ground. However, poor weather conditions hamper the search. Native indigenous villagers who live around the Pianista area (and beyond) are shown photos of the missing girls to aid in the process.

6 Apr 

  • 10.26pm - iPhone turned on, no emergency call attempt (NO PIN). The "Clock" app is accessed


  • 10.27am - Device switched off


  • 2.35pm - Device is turned on, no pin entered, then switched off (NO PIN)

  • No usage
  • Day - Sinaproc officially start searching the area on the ground.
7-10 Apr
  • No usage
  • No usage 
  • Night - Sinaproc / Senafront spend nights in search areas.


  • Night - Senafront special forces use call and light signals to locate the girls.


  • 8 Apr (Early morning hours of) - Night photos taken on Lisanne's camera.


  • 8 April (Day) - Kris' parents arrive in Boquete. Sinaproc's chief, Arturo Alvarado, reports that his teams have searched "every zone" where the girls may have ended up. At this stage, Sinaproc has covered over 25 different routes in the jungle near Boquete and have not found anything.


  • 9 April - Sinaproc search using rescue dogs.
11 Apr
  • 10.51am - iPhone turned on, no emergency call attempt (NO PIN). The phone stays on until 11.56am


  • 11.56am - iPhone switched off for the last time
  • No usage
  • Night - Sinaproc / Senafront spend night in search area.


  • Night - Senafront special forces use call and light signals to locate the girls.
14 Apr
  • No usage
  • No usage
  • Search for the girls is scaled down - Sinaproc stops searching on this day. Police and investigators continue to probe the matter.


  • Local guide Plinio Montenegro flies over the area with Sinaproc for the last time by helicopter.


  • Spokesman Elmer Quintero says at a press conference: "If they were in the jungle of Boquete, we would have already found them."
30 Apr
  • No usage
  • No usage
  • $30,000 reward offered by the families.
11 Jun
  • Phone found in the recovered backpack
  • Phone found in the recovered backpack
  • Backpack handed into authorities by local indigenous Ngäbe woman. She found it on 11 June near the Changuinola River.


19 Jun
  • Phone with authorities
  • Phone with authorities 
  • Lisanne's shoe (with foot inside) and Kris' pelvic bone are found behind a tree near the Changuinola. A team of 6, including Feliciano find these remains. This area had previously been searched by rescue teams.


  • Kris' shoe found by Feliciano and his team. Kris' jean shorts also found at a later date (date unknown) by the same team. 
30 Jul
  • Phone with authorities


  • Phone with authorities


  • More small bone fragments found by Feliciano and team.


6 Aug 
  • Phone with authorities
  • Phone with authorities
  • Bone fragment from Kris' rib bone (no. 10 right rib) is found.


  • Local villagers find more of the girls remains along the Culebra river: two bones of a lower leg (Lisanne); a small bone (unknown), and a piece of 'skin'.
29 Aug
  • Phone with authorities


  • Phone with authorities
  •  Remains are sent to the authorities.

(Source1; Source2; Source3; Source4)



Photo #509 

Photo number 509 was missing from the recovered camera. In the sequence of photos taken (which started in the 400's and ended in the 600's), number 509 did not appear and no trace of it was ever recorded. Interestingly enough, 509 lies between the normal/day photos and the strange night images. If it were deleted from the camera itself, there would be a record of this on the camera log, in the data processor somewhere. When experts at the Netherlands Forensic Institute examined the camera, there was no trace of 509 ever existing.


The are only three possibilities for this, as outlined below:


  • Deleted via computer using the relevant software or a
  • Technical malfunction that occurred on the camera itself and corrupted the file at that particular point (this is rare, but still possible) or a
  • Second memory card was used, then taken out and the original memory card was placed back inside the camera


Deleted via computer

If 509 had been deleted on the camera immediately after it was taken, then the next photo taken, would become 509. If, however, 509 was deleted (on the camera) after all the night photos were taken, then the numbering sequence would stay the same, and would skip 509 as evidenced on the recovered camera. However, there would still be a trace/record of 509 existing in the camera's log. The only way to delete all evidence of 509, is to do this via software. However, this requires a high degree of expertise, as remnants of the file would still be left in various sections, even after deletion via a computer. It would require quite a bit of investment of time and expertise to delete all sections manually. The file must also have been formatted in order for all information of it to be completely erased. A camera cable would also be needed to connect the camera into the computer to access the photos. If deletion via a computer did occur, then it was done after all the night photos were taken, so after the entire sequence of photos existed. (Source @25:45min)


Technical malfunction  

According to Canon, skipping photo numbers is, in principle, "not possible" but can happen in "in very exceptional cases". (Loc3615@Source)


Swapping out the memory card 

Swapping out that memory card may also have the effect of deleting images leaving no trace. However, this would mean that Lisanne had a second memory card on her, which was never recovered. According to this source, a police officer involved in the investigation spoke to the authors about "two rolls of film.(Loc3615@Source) No individual is identified to substantiate this claim and there is no hard evidence of a second memory card having been recovered from the backpack. Theoretically, the girls may have had a second memory card that they used, which would explain the missing file of #509. It may be that the second memory card was either:


  • Never recovered - making this a theory rather than anything substantiated by fact; or
  • Was recovered - but lost by the authorities and never formally entered into evidence



The Dog 'Blue'

Earlier on in the case, it was reported that the girls took took a dog that belonged to the owners of the Il Pianista restaurant with them on the hike. The dog's name was 'Blue' (or 'Azul' in Spanish). The dog accompanied many tourists on the hike up the trail as evidenced in this blog.


Here is the exert which outlines the girls took the dog with them. However, we don't know how accurate any of these witness statements are. They tend to be unreliable considering one of the witnesses claims he saw them starting the trail around 3pm. Also coupled with the fact that the dog doesn't appear in any of the photos, make it unlikely the dog went with them. It may have be a case mistaken identity by the restaurant owner and/or other witnesses.



Update: Missing Dutch Tourists

April 7, 2014 by Lee Zeltzer

Source: Boquete Panama Guide, entry from 7 April 2014


This morning I had a word with one of the volunteers searching for the two missing Dutch women in Boquete. Phil advised me that the search had moved out from Il Pianista back to town. He said the owner of Il Pianista, Giovani, had spoken to the women on April 1 and told them where to catch a bus back to Boquete. This along with other rumors drove me to drive to Il Pianista.


Giovani was not at the restaurant but his wife Doris was. This is what she said.


Giovani saw the women on 1 April near Don Pedro hitching toward Il Pianista. An employee at Il Pianista saw them start-up the trail between 3:00 and 3:30PM. Blue their dog, who often follows hikers went with them.


No one can remember seeing them return. Blue did return and Doris believes because of the hour they could not have gone far. She and Gionvani believe that they did return or the dog would have stayed with them.


All of this information has been provided directly by them to the DIJ investigators and Sinproc.



Night photos and Kris' Hair photo

There were a number of strange night photos which were taken on Lisanne's camera after the last 'normal' photo of 508. All of these night photos are dated to the early morning hours of 8 April. Section 3 of Juan's album contains the full set of these. Coincidentally, this was the first night Sinaproc spent in the area using light and noise signals.


Early on, it had been reported that one of the night photos showed the back of Kris' hair with blood coming out of the side of her temple. At the time, only a partial image of the photo was shown. It was assumed the part that showed the blood was hidden from view. As we now have the clearer image of that photo, we can see that there is no blood whatsoever. So this must have been reported incorrectly at the time.


It is also interesting to note, not all of the night photos have been released to the public (as of 2021). So unless the photo with 'blood-on-temple' exists in an unreleased image, then we can safely conclude no such photo exists.



Search teams - unable to locate anything

On 2 April, guide Feliciano raised the alarm and officially reported the girls missing to police. Sinaproc sent out a helicopter search to scour the area on 3 April - two days after the disappearance. Feliciano also took to the trail to search for the girls, but found nothing on both sides of the path (before and after the summit). On 4 April, the official government search teams (Sinaproc and Senafront) started searching on the ground. From 7 to 11 April - not only did these authorities undertake searches during the day, they also spent the evenings in the jungle and used special call and light signals to try and locate the girls. No trace of them was ever found around this time. It wasn't until June (then August) that a few scattered remains were recovered.


According to this night photo a crude attempt at an 'SOS' message and what looks like debris, was taken in the early morning hours of 8 April. Unusually, no debris was every found, despite the search teams scouring the area around this time.


The head of Sinaproc is quoted to have told his superiors, when asked why no result were being yielded from the searches, that the girls could not have been in the jungle, as no stone had be unturned in trying to find them. It is highly unusual that nothing was found during those crucial first few weeks. On April 14, spokesman Elmer Quintero says during a press conference: "If they were in the jungle of Boquete, we would have already found them." (Source)



Discovery of the bones and backpack



The backpack was found on 11 June 2014, by a local Ngäbe woman, who, along with her husband, had visited the Changuinola river (locally known as the "Culebra") to wash clothes and bathe. (Source @33:15min) It had been missing for two months by this stage. The recovered backpack and contained the following items:


  • $87 (USD) in paper money 
  • 5 x 25 cent coins
  • Canon Powershot HS270 XS camera
  • Camera cover
  • Camera battery and one memory card ('SanDisc' brand)
  • Empty plastic case
  • Two pairs of sunglasses
  • Two bras - one all black; one black with pink-red flowers
  • Insurance card in the name of 'L. Froon' 
  • One iPhone
  • One Samsung phone
  • One lock
  • Key with keyring attached
  • Two phone cases
  • Candy wrapper
  • Small padlock with key
  • One water bottle with a white cap and a small amount of water in it (Loc3042@Source)


According to a statement from the Prosecutor, the backpack showed signs of dragging and also had residue of sand and leaf throughout. It had also been soaked with water. The electronics inside were no longer in working order, however were able to be salvaged by the forensic teams. (Source1Source2Source3)



A few days later, on 18 June, Lisanne's boot with bone fragments inside and a section of Kris' pelvis were found near some trees along the Culebra. Further bone fragments as well as a (possible) skin fragment were also recovered on 6 August. These items were sent to the forensic teams on 29 August. The bones were discovered a 14 hour hike north, past two rivers, from where the girls were originally known to be (at last known location of #508).


Kris' Remains

Kris' pelvis bone was recovered as well as her (right) number 10 rib bone. Her pelvis had almost been broken in half and her bones also had remnants of phosphates on them. For a more in-depth analysis of the state of Kris' remains, please see this article penned by Chris from the ImperfectPlan website. Only 2 elements of her complete skeleton were ever recovered.


Conclusions that can be drawn from Kris' remains:


Interesting Factors Conclusion from this find
(1) Kris' bones contained traces of phosphorus (possibly sourced from lyme or exposure to sunlight)

Soil samples taken from the spot where the bones were found, showed that phosphorus did not occur in the soil naturally. Phosphorus is used by farmers as fertilizer in the region but does not occur naturally in jungle area, where the remains were found. Panamanian investigators however, suggested the phosphates came from the "stomach acids of large animals", who may have "swallowed the bones and then expulsed them again." It could also be from the effect of sunlight on the bones, rather than other foreign matter.

(2) Bones did not show any marks or abrasions.

There were no marks on the remains that would indicate they had endured a long time in the river/rock systems. The bones should have shown visible signs of micro-abrasions and scratching if they had been dragged down the river system for many kilometers (and they didn't). This may indicate the remains hadn't been in the vicinity for very long, before they were recovered.

The forensic report (prepared by the Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences of Chiriqui) - also indicated that the bones showed no signs of trauma caused by sharp objects, puncturing, projectiles or firearms and no evidence of dismemberment. Here is a quote from the report: "There are no discernible scratches of any kind on the bones, neither of natural nor cultural origin - there are no marks on the bones at all.”

(3) Pelvis bone had been broken (almost) in half Quite a bit of force would be needed in order to fracture the pelvis bone in such a manner. Akin to injuries seen in a car accident or fall from a great height. It may also be as a result of the fast flowing water from the river in the area, which maybe have broken down the bone in such a manner.

(Source1; Source2)


Lisanne's Remains

Lisanne's remains were found in a different condition to Kris'. No bleaching was present on any of the bones. Her foot (still in its boot), tibia and femur were also found. 28 scattered bone fragments were discovered over time along a river bank (all of which came from her foot). See further details below. Only 28 elements of her complete skeleton were ever recovered.


Conclusions that can be drawn from Lisanne's remains:


Interesting Factors  Conclusion from this find

(1) Three of Lisanne's foot metatarsals were broken (these are the bones on top of the foot). Her heel, ankle, and all other bones below the foot were in-tact and not broken. Her foot was found inside the recovered hiking boot.

The examiner is quoted in saying there is only a 50% chance this was caused by a fall from a great height. There is also a 50% chance it was caused by other type of injury such as: a rock fell on the top of her foot; or a weapon came from above and struck her foot from the above motion causing injury. Generally, if she had suffered a fall from a height, other bones within the foot/leg (such as tibia, heel) would also have been broken. She would have had to fall in a very specific way for only the top part of the foot to be damaged.

(2) None of the recovered bones had any sort or marks or abrasions on them. Not even normal wear and tear that you would expect, if the bones had been washed down the river.

This could perhaps indicate the bones hadn't been there very long when they were discovered. 
(3) Rolled up piece skin, initially thought to be from her shin bone, with maggots still present, was found in August 2014. However, on further inspection, this was later determined to be from an animal. The piece of skin came from an animal (mammal - possibly a cow).
(4) Lisanne's leg bones showed she had suffered periostitis. This is a medical condition caused by inflammation of the periosteum, a layer of connective tissue that surrounds bone, usually caused by overexertion. From this, it can be determined that she had been walking for several days over a distance, overexerting that area of her body.

(Source1; Source2)


Conclusion of the Authorities

A team of forensic specialists concluded the most probable cause of death was that the girls slipped and fell from a cliff. Cliffs in the area are 30-40 meters high and water currents are also strong at the bottom of the cliffs, so they theorized, these currents made it difficult to find any further human remains. Forensic pathologist and Head of the research team, Frank van der Goot is quoted in saying, "Having taken the geographical and social conditions into account with the technical facts that emerged from the forensic investigation, a crime in the form of robbery, rape, violent crime or kidnapping is very unlikely." However, the official Panamanian report concluded the girls fell from the first monkey bridge along the path. It is interesting to note that Frank van der Goot was interviewed as part of the Lost in the Wild episode and he states that he doesn't agree with the official conclusion that they fell from the monkey bridge. (Source @21:40min)


However, this leaves many question unanswered. If the girls simply fell off a cliff, why weren't more of their remains found? And in-tact? The first emergency call occurred at 4.39pm on April 1, how did the girls get lost when there is seemingly one path in that area. Did they become disoriented in the fields past the first cow paddock? Why were the strange night photos taken? If the girls took the night shots (for whatever reason), why didn't they also leave a goodbye message, or use the camera to document a clearer picture of what happened? Or were they too distraught and too focused on trying to find their way back, that they didn't record anything further? If the girls did get lost, where did they manage to do this? There is only one path on the other side of the summit. Or did they lose sight of the path in the subsequent cow fields and open fields further down the line? Why didn't the search teams find more traces of the girls when they spent so many days and nights out there? Additionally, their last known position exists on a hiking route that is commonly used by locals. Nearby inhabitants use these trails all the time. If the girls survived an accident or simply became lost, why didn't the locals or search teams come across them, or their cries for help, in the subsequent hours or days following the accident? Or did the girls find themselves in a location that was so remote it was impossible to exit; and made it impossible for rescue teams to locate them? Or did they keep walking meaning the search teams missed them when they finally came across the areas they had been? There are many questions that lie unanswered.


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The forensic report prepared by the doctors and anthropologists of the Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences (IMELF) of Chiriqui indicates that on the bones of the Dutch Kris Kremers and Lisanne Froon there are no signs of trauma caused by sharp objects, sharp, puncturing, projectiles or firearms. The forensic report also reveals that no evidence of dismemberment was found." Nevertheless, the official position is that the women were “dragged to death” in a river called the Culebra, the Serpent, after an unexplained hiking accident. Even under magnification, “there are no discernible scratches of any kind on the bones, neither of natural nor cultural origin—there are no marks on the bones at all.
Bone fragments are found 

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